TRMT 353: Community Development in Recreation and Tourism

Course Outline


No one person, no board, no council, no developer, plans or builds, alone, a whole community.

James B. Milner, 1962



Section:                       F0601                                       Semester:       Fall 2006          

Instructor:                  Nicole Vaugeois                                                 

Class Times:                 T and R 4:00 to 5:30               Location:         Building 255-140

                                                                                                            Nanaimo Campus

Office Hours:               Tuesday and Thursday from 10 am to noon or by appointment

Office Location:           Building 315-136

Office Phone:               753-3245 (2772)                        Email:     

Course website:


Required Reading:


This course will require students to go to the library and make copies of the binder of reserve readings (Community Development binder: course readings for Nicole Vaugeois).  There are two copies of the binder and they are on reserve, available for 2 hours to copy.  I suggest that you schedule a visit early in the term to copy all the required readings and assemble them in your own binder.  All readings must be returned in the binder and in order, so make sure to keep them organized while copying.


There are numerous on line resources for community development linked off my website.  I suggest that you visit this regularly, in particular the Community Tool Box available at:  I would like to see you integrating this material into discussion in class and in your assignments.


Course Description:

This course will examine the role of leisure service providers in planning and community development.  Leisure’s potential role in contributing to dynamic, enjoyable and supportive communities will be explored.  Topics focus on the social and political processes through which groups and individuals work to establish relationships and mobilize resources to fulfill community recreation and tourism needs. Students will acquire the skills and knowledge required of a recreation or tourism practitioner involved in community development initiatives whether it be in the not-for-profit, public or private sector.


Learning Outcomes:

Upon completion of this course, the learner will be able to:


q                   Define the concepts central to the course and describe the role of community development in the provision of recreation and tourism opportunities.

q                   Become effective at locating, motivating and mobilizing resources in an attempt to satisfy community goals.

q                   Develop an appreciation for, and strategies to enable, the involvement of the public when creating community leisure opportunities.

q                   Articulate strategies for becoming oriented to a community’s values, resources, needs and problems.

q                   Describe the advantages and disadvantages of community development in relation to existing trends in leisure service delivery.

q                   Articulate the responsibilities, skills and characteristics of a community developer.

q                   Understand the role and characteristics of successful groups with the ability to facilitate healthy and dynamic group development.

q                   Understand how community and groups respond to the change process with the ability to apply strategies for supporting and managing change.



Course Evaluation:


The following table outlines the assignments and exams required to complete this course.  Please note that all assignments and exams must be completed in order to receive a passing grade in this course.  The details of the assignments will be handed out in class.  All assignments are due AT THE BEGINNING OF CLASS TO THE INSTRUCTOR (if you are late, so is your assignment!).  LATE ASSIGNMENTS WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED.  Extensions may be requested at the discretion of the instructor for serious illness or major injury with proof of a medical note.




Due Date


Getting to know a community video assignment

September 28th


Discussion questions (individual)

Throughout the term and then November 30th


Community Development Case Study

November 14th


Grant proposal (individual or partner)

November 28th




100 marks




Please refer to the College Calendar (page 18-19) for a description of the college grading system.  The Instructor will assign a letter grade based on each student’s performance at the end of the course.  Grades will be assigned closely in alignment with the following scale:


A+        95 - 100            A          90 - 94              A-         85 - 89              B+        80 - 84

B          75 - 79              B-         70 - 74              C+        65 - 69              C          60 - 64

C-         55 - 59              D          50 - 54              F          49 and lower



Instructors Expectations of Students:


I assume that you are all paying a lot for a good education and I will do my best to provide you value for your dollar. I also assume that you are here to learn, and as learning is an active process, you are willing to put in the effort required to understand the concepts and skills covered in the course.  And, I am expected to graduate students who are competent in the outcomes of this course, therefore I will push you to learn and apply as much of the material as you can.


On a day-to-day basis then, I expect learners to be active by:

q       Attending class with body and mind.  Paying attention and showing a keen desire to learn.

q       Asking pertinent questions and challenging their own ideas and assumptions, as well as others through thoughtful and considerate communication skills.

q       Reading the assignment material in preparation for classes, and searching for other relevant information to share with classmates.


Nicole’s background in Community Development


I have had the opportunity to practice in community development for over 15 years.  These experiences allow me to bring examples into the classroom and to engage you, the learner, in projects in the real world.  Feel free to engage me in discussion on these if you would like more information.


Current projects:


Reaching out to rural communities

                  I am the project coordinator of a three year initiative to work collaboratively with various education and government partners to collect and share resources that enable rural communities throughout BC to develop tourism. 


Evaluator – Regional Roundtable in Northeastern BC

                  I am the designated evaluator for a community collaboration project taking place throughout Northeastern BC for the next three years.  My role is to evaluate how the regional approach brings people together to enhance the quality of life for people in this area.


Canadian Parks and Recreation Association – National Research Forum Task member

                  I am a part of a National team that is working to improve the partnership between researchers and practitioners in the Canadian Parks and Recreation Association.


Island Biosphere Reserve

                  I am on the Advisory Committee to establish an Island Biosphere Reserve in the Parksville Qualicum region. This group is comprised of various politicians in the area and key community leaders to bring awareness to the project and to mobilize resources.


Tourism Vancouver Island – Board member

                  I hold a seat on the Board for Tourism Vancouver Island – this allows me an opportunity to keep fluent in governance issues, effective meetings, networking and partnerships.


I use the community development approach in various other ways when working with groups. In the past, I have used this approach as a Programmer in Recreation and Parks Departments, and on research teams with community initiatives.




Note:   This timetable has been constructed to help you prepare in advance for classes.  The instructor will try to keep to this schedule and will discuss with the class if there are any significant changes






Sept 5

Welcome, introduction to the course, instructor and assignments




Introduction to concepts like community, community development and community economic development

1 and 2

Discussion questions begin


Refining a core skill in written communication - Writing Center Session in class

Locating resources in community development




Why use community development for recreation and tourism provision?  What are the advantages and disadvantages?




The role of a community development practitioner. What skills are needed in community development?

4 and 5



Getting to know a community – formal class cancelled in lieu of you getting outside to do your first assignment

6 and 7



Debriefing of the community you assessed last week




Understanding power dynamics


Getting to know your community

Oct 3

The Community Development process:

Need identification and capacity approach








Building and maintaining effective partnerships




Mobilizing a group




Maximizing meeting time




Raising resources for community projects












Facilitating groups



Nov 1









Evaluating community development initiatives

16 and 17



Community development in action


Case studies begin
















Project proposal is due


Review, debrief and celebrate


Discussion questions



List of required readings


The following reading material is required for TRMT 353.  The readings are available in the library as reserve-reading material associated to this course.


At this level of your education, I expect that you have copied and read each reading prior to class.  In many instances, I will prepare discussion questions for you to focus your reading efforts.  During class, I will not lecture on the content within these readings, rather we will engage in discussion about their main points and their applicability in community development projects in recreation and tourism.


Key on line text for all sections of the course is the Community Tool Box available at:


Concepts and definitions

1.                   Wheatley, M.J. and Myron Kellner-Rogers (1998). The paradox and promise of community.  The Community of the Future: Frances Hesselfein et al (Eds.) The Peter Drucker Foundation for Non Profit Management Pages  9-18. Located in the Library/Reserve Readings

2.                   Covey, S. (1998). The ideal community. The Community of the Future: Frances Hesselfein et al (Eds.) The Peter Drucker Foundation for Non Profit Management Pages  19-28. Located in the Library/Reserve Readings


Community development: Principles and processes

3.                   Ife, Jim (2002). Principles of community development.  Community Development: Community Based Alternatives in an Era of Globalization.  Longman, Pearson Education, Australia


The community developer – roles and skills

4.                   Ife, Jim (2002). Roles and skills.  Community Development: Community Based Alternatives in an Era of Globalization.  Longman, Pearson Education, Australia

5.                   Frank, Flo and Anne Smith (1999). Attitudes, Knowledge and Skills.  The Development Handbook: A Tool to Build Community Capacity.  Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada.


Breaking down the community development process:

Getting to know your community

6.                   Homan, Mrk S. (1999). Knowing your community.  Promoting Community Change:  Making it Happen in the Real World (2nd Ed.) Brooks/Cole Publishing Co. Toronto

7.                   Community toolbox: Understanding and describing the community.  Available on line at:

8.                   Homan, Mrk S. (1999). Power.  Promoting Community Change:  Making it Happen in the Real World (2nd Ed.) Brooks/Cole Publishing Co. Toronto


Identifying the problem and capacities within your community

9.                   Davies, Anthony (1997). Problem identification.  Managing for change: How to run community development projects.  ITDG Publishing, London


Mobilizing resources

10.               Davies, Anthony (1997). Mobilizing a group.  Managing for change: How to run community development projects.  ITDG Publishing, London

11.               Tropman, John E. (1997). Obstacles to and guidelines for working together in community development.  Successful Community Leadership: A Skills Guide for Volunteers and Professionals.  NASW Press

12.               Meeting Wizard (online source) Effective meetings available at: 

13.               Homan, Mrk S. (1999). Raising other resources.  Promoting Community Change:  Making it Happen in the Real World (2nd Ed.) Brooks/Cole Publishing Co. Toronto


Strategies for action

14.               Frank, Flo and Anne Smith (2000). What is a partnership? The Partnership Handbook.  Human Resources Development Canada.  Minister of Public Works and Government Services, Ottawa.

15.               MacNamara, C. (1999). Facilitation (Face to face and on line). On line source available at:  (Note: Read start, read secrets of successful facilitators, and review other links as needed to understand facilitation skills)


Evaluating the intangible

16.               Donald E. Voth (1979). Problems in the evaluation of community development efforts.  Community Development research: Concepts, Issues and strategies, edited by Edward J. Blakely.  Human Sciences Press.

17.               Evaluation made easy: Examples of Practical Evaluations.  Cyfernet Evaluation (on line source) available at:



Tools and Resources


This section contains forms that may be useful to you throughout the course and later when you are involved in community development practice.  Make sure to copy these and keep together as I will refer to them in classes.


Getting to Know your Community Assignment


Due Date:          Sept 28             Weight:             20% of final grade


The purpose of this project is to have learners become familiar with how to get to know a community.  In doing so, it will engage students in secondary research, make them work on a project with a group, visit an actual community and learn to produce a short video. 


When involved in community development projects and planning you will first need to collect basic facts and figures about the people in your community and get a feel for the community.  The information gathered will provide you with some idea about the community growth and general characteristics of the people within the community.  Through continuous effort, community developers can keep their “finger on the pulse” of the community.



q                   You should select a group of 4 to 6 people for this assignment.  Before selecting your group – decide what type of skills and resources you would like in your group.

q                   Your group should decide what community they will select for this assignment. You will be doing a site visit, so make sure that it is one that is accessible for people to visit once in the next few weeks (examples are Ladysmith, Chemainus, Crofton, Duncan, Parksville, Qualicum, Coombs).

q                   Determine how you will find out about this community prior to your visit. What do you want to know about the place?  Examples would be:

·         How many people live there?

·         How long has it been around?

·         Why was it formed in the first place?

·         What are some of the issues in the community today?

·         What are the key industries?

·         What is the composition of the community

·         And anything else that you want to know prior to the visit…

                  And determine a list of things you want to observe when at the community

o        Layout

o        Sense of pride

o        Vibrancy/resilience

o        Recreation amenities

o        Tourism amenities

o        And others…

o        Determine a date that your group can visit the community (you are given class time in lieu of your visit).  Determine what you will do when in the community to get a sense of it (i.e. walking tour, chat to locals, read the paper, take photos, visit the museum, etc)

o        Book a video camera and/or digital camera for your visit.  Make sure more than one person is capturing images as we all see different things.  You can also scan documents to incorporate into your video.

o        There is no written report for this but you will submit a CD/DVD with a maximum 10 minute video of your observations.  This should include not only images but audio on your findings.  You can book equipment through the library at the front desk (see left hand side for equipment rentals).  There are numerous programs to prepare a short video such as Windows Movie Maker or others that may be installed on your or some of the campus computers. Most are very user friendly and you can do a short tutorial or book a demonstration if you need to (or ask fellow students). 

o        Submit your video on the due date in a folder, with a hard copy of the script of words used in the video.  Ensure all student names are included on the report/DVD.



An A will:

-           Have excellent technical features throughout and have flawless spelling and grammar

-           Appear professional in its presentation of the report (appearance and format)

-           Read well showing attention to the organization of content

-           Illustrate that depth and accuracy of research on the community referencing other sources

-           Illustrate a synthesis of thoughts with the author’s professional opinion supported

-                      Illustrate comprehension of how to know a community and the community profile


Grant Proposal Project


Weight:           30% of your final grade         

Due Date:        November 28

The purpose of this assignment is to have students develop skills in preparing and presenting a grant proposal for a community recreation or tourism initiative.   Students will develop an idea, which fits the eligibility requirements of a grant program of their choice.  Students may receive added value from the assignment by locating an organization that has real funding needs and trying to write a real grant proposal to assist them in their efforts.





q       You may complete this assignment individually or in pairs. Pairs are recommended for this assignment as it is often a bit difficult for someone learning alone.

q       If you want to work with a real organization, come up with a few options and then contact them to discuss the project.  Nicole can prepare a letter for you as support if you wish.  If you feel more comfortable coming up with a hypothetical idea and organization that is fine too – it is sometimes more difficult to “fabricate” things for the proposal, but then again it may be less stressful for you in that it is not going to a real life audience – sort of a practice round.  There is value in both.

q       Obtain information and an application for a grant program.  These are often found through government ministries (although government seems a bit tight lately!).  I do not mind if you use an outdated program for this project such as the former BC 21-grant program if you are using a hypothetical project.  The intent is to have you learn how to write a proposal and fit into eligibility requirements for your project and organization.

q       Using the information required of the grant application and the pointers provided in class on proposal writing you will then prepare a proposal for a recreation or tourism related community project.  Your organization (hypothetical or real) and its project must be eligible for this grant (read the guidelines very closely!) and should make attempts to satisfy all areas of the application.


            Assistance in how to write a grant proposal may be obtained on the net:


This one will be used to structure the lecture on proposal writing and is quite good – print out a copy early and use it to help you throughout the assignment.

Here is another good one:


q       Submit your proposal on the due date

q       As part of your grade, you are also required to evaluate one other grant proposal from class.  You will be given a grant proposal, a grading sheet and the grant requirements from Nicole and have one week to provide your feedback.  All feedback comes back to Nicole and will be returned with my feedback to the authors.  As a Community Developer you will also be required to evaluate and give feedback to others who are trying to obtain resources.  This exercise will allow you to build those skills in a supportive environment.


An A proposal will:

-           Have a well-developed problem statement in the proposal’, which is supported by references and appears convincing to the reader.

-           Show a clear match with the purpose and eligibility criteria of your funding source.

-                      Read well, show mastery of all the sections of the proposal

-                      Be presented professionally

-           Illustrate excellent writing including flawless grammar and spelling

-           Satisfy all requirements of the grant

-           Utilize excellent formatting throughout and incorporate sufficient references using APA



Discussion Questions


Weight:           20% of grade

Due date:        Each class discussion questions are assigned for


The purpose of this assignment is to ensure students absorb the learning provided to them in the course reading materials and classroom discussion time. 


Throughout the course, the instructor will assign discussion questions to help guide your reading and prepare you for the next class.  Discussion questions should be responded to in a word-processed document and brought to the next class.  During class, students should refer to their written responses to help them make meaningful contributions to class discussion.  On a random basis throughout the semester, the instructor will ask students to submit their responses at the end of class.  These will be reviewed to see if the student: a) completed them, and b) comprehends the material. 


Important note:  As they are due at the end of class, some students may feel that they can slip in late to class and get them in! Unfortunately, I will record late attendance. If in the case you are late on a day that I ask for submissions, yours will not be accepted.  And, I will not accept any excuses for these submissions.  They are in at the end of class when I ask for them, or they are not.  Always next time…



An A in this assignment will be given where:


-                      All submissions are received when requested

-                      Submissions are word-processed

-                      Submissions address all the questions asked

-                      Submissions are written clearly and show comprehension of the topic

-                      Students contribute main points during class



Community Development Case study


Weight:     30% of final grade

Due Date:  November 1



The purpose of this assignment is to have students become familiar with and critically evaluate case studies in community development.  Students can choose to be a part of a “live case study” or critique a “written case study” in community development.  By evaluating a case study where community development is used to achieve group goals, the student will have the opportunity to reflect upon and apply knowledge gained throughout the course.


This assignment can be done either individually or in pairs.  The weight and page length remain the same regardless.


All papers should conform to APA guidelines, be between 10 to 15 pages in length, double spaced with your choice of a size 11 font.  All references must be clearly indicated throughout the document and appear in alpha order according to APA requirements at the end of the document.




1.                               Think about whether or not you want to observe a live case study or critique ones that are written up already.  What is the difference?  A live case study would allow you to meet real people and make observations at meetings about group dynamics, etc.  It will also allow you to see the “messy” side of community development so you have some experience.  A written up case study is someone else’s documentation of a community development approach.  These will usually contain a lot of information about who was involved, what happened, etc.  This approach will still allow you to critique the process, but may be more suitable to those who do not have the time or interest in experiencing this first hand. 

2.                               If you are choosing a live case, a few different opportunities will be described to you in the second week of the course – some are from current projects with Leadership BC Nanaimo and other groups.  If you are interested in working with an organization or group, feel free to approach me to discuss suitability.  This will also require that you approach the organization for permission to be an observer.  If you choose the written case, do a good search for two case studies where the community development approach was used in a recreation or tourism project.  The two cases you choose should have some connection to each other – so perhaps they are both about how youth work together on a similar project, or how two communities approach special events etc. 

3.                               Make your observations.  In the live case, you should introduce yourself to the group leader and clarify your role as an observer of the community development process for this term.  You should attempt to make it to meetings, review minutes, and talk to those involved to determine what is working and what could be improved in their approach.  Your observations should be based on what we are learning about in class.   In the written case, you should read your cases and extract the process and strategies that were used in each case and then compare and contrast each case with what you have been learning about in class readings.

4.                               Write your results.  Both reports are the same length etc. they just have different sources of information.  The observation report should include:

  • An introduction to the paper (direction, intent, what is included and why)
  • A background on the case(s) for the reader (what was the group, why formed, purpose of the group, how long have they been together, what are they trying to achieve etc)
  • Observations – describe the observations made about various components of community development i.e. how the group functions at meetings, leadership, power dynamics, how they mobilize resources, problem identification, evaluation, facilitation, etc.  What did you observe?  How does this compare to what you have learned about effective CD practice?
  • Reflections and recommendations – make suggestions on the case for what should be done (live case) to improve CD performance and in the written case, what should have happened to improve practice.


Make sure to use references from your course to demonstrate you understand the CD process.


For those working with a live case, you should condense your observation report into a 2 page observation summary for the group you are working with as well. Provide this to them and do a short commentary with the group when you depart.  Then submit it as well as an appendix item to your final paper.




An A in this assignment will be given for papers that:

q       Provide strong background on the cases being observed

q       Make ample connections to the readings from the course

q       Read well with excellent grammar and spelling

q       Use flawless APA writing style

q       Show evidence of comprehension of community development practice