Professor Chris Gill, Ph.D., P. Chem.
Co-Director, Applied Environmental Research Laboratories (AERL)
Chemistry Department, Vancouver Island University (VIU)
Nanaimo, BC, Canada
Adjunct Associate Professor
University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada
Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences
University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
I have always been fascinated by mass spectrometry and its use as a powerful and sensitive method for chemical measurement and identification. My research interests have always been aimed at direct chemical measurements of trace analytes in complicated, real samples. Early work focused on a number of strategies including laser microsampling and multiphoton ionization approaches, often with quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometers, but for well over a decade, the use of semipermeable membrane sampling interfaces with mass spectrometric and other detection strategies has dominated our group’s research. I am an instrumental analytical mass spectrometrist, and the satisfaction of bringing together new technologies to solve difficult chemical measurement challenges is very rewarding.
Our group was an early pioneer in the ‘lab-to-the-field’ revolution occurring in the area of environmental mass spectrometry, utilizing a number of in-house constructed membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS) systems in a variety of vehicles, allowing spatial and temporal mapping of multiple trace contaminants in the atmosphere. We are currently completing construction of a $1M mobile laboratory (CFI Funded) capable of making real time chemical measurements in both air and water, in the field, providing cloud accessible, quantitative data directly at the time of measurement via the internet. Current research directions include the miniaturization of MIMS systems as well as the logical extension of MIMS and other MS based technologies into the realm of real time bio-analytical measurements. Although situated at a small, predominately undergraduate institution, located on beautiful Vancouver Island, our research has global impact. The AERL facilities are well equipped, with a wide range of mass spectrometry systems for both fundamental and applied research. We have broad international collaboration networks, including projects with researchers in Canada, the United States, Germany and Italy. Funding for our research comes from NSERC, CFI and BCKDF as well as other local, national and international sources.
We are always interested in potential new group members, from the undergraduate to graduate level. Post-doctoral opportunities exist, especially if self-funded.
Termopoli, V., Famiglini, G., Palma, P., Cappiello, A., Vandergrift, G. W., Krogh, E. T., and Gill, C. G., The Direct, On-line Measurement of Low ppb Level PAHs in Complex Aqueous Samples by Condensed Phase Membrane Introduction Mass Spectrometry (CP-MIMS) Using Direct Electron Ionization (DEI), Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 27, 301 (2016).
Duncan, K. D., Volmer, D. A., Gill, C. G. and Krogh, E. T. Rapid screening of carboxylic acids from waste and surface waters by ESI-MS/MS using barium ion chemistry and on-line membrane sampling. Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 27, 443 (2016).
Duncan, K. D., Letourneau, D. R., Vandergrift, G. W., Jobst, K., Reiner, E., Gill, C. G. and Krogh, E. T., A semi-quantitative approach for the rapid screening and mass profiling of naphthenic acids directly in contaminated aqueous samples, Journal of Mass Spectrometry, 51, 44 (2016).
Letourneau, D. R., Gill, C. G. and Krogh, E. T., Photosensitized degradation kinetics of trace halogenated contaminants in natural waters using membrane introduction mass spectrometry as an in-situ reaction monitor, Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences, 14, 2108 (2015).
Davey, N. G., Bell, R. J., Krogh, E. T. and Gill, C. G., A Membrane Introduction Mass Spectrometer Utilizing Ion-Molecule Reactions for the On-line Speciation and Quantitation of Volatile Organic Molecules, Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 29, 2187 (2015).
Bell, R.J., Davey, N.G., Martinsen, M., Collin-Hansen, C., Krogh, E.T. and Gill, C.G., A Field-Portable Membrane Introduction Mass Spectrometer for Real-time Quantitation and Spatial Mapping of Atmospheric and Aqueous Contaminants, Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 26, 212 (2015).
Bell, R.J., Davey, N.G., Martinsen, M., Short, R.T., Gill, C.G. and Krogh, E.T., The Effect of the Earth’s and Stray Magnetic Fields on Mobile Mass Spectrometer Systems, Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 26, 201 (2015).
Duncan, K.D., Vandergrift, G.W., Krogh, E.T. and Gill, C.G., Ionization suppression effects with condensed phase membrane introduction mass spectrometry: methods to increase the linear dynamic range and sensitivity, Journal of Mass Spectrometry, 50, 437 (2014).
Krogh, E.T., Gill, C.G., Membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS): a versatile tool for direct, real time chemical measurements, Journal of Mass Spectrometry, Invited Cover Page Article, 49, 1205 (2014).
Davey, N.G., Fitzpatrick, C.T.E., Etzkorn, J.M., Martinsen, M., Crampton, R.S., Onstad, G.D., Larson, T.V., Yost, M.G., Krogh, E.T., Gilroy, M., Himes, K.H., Saganic, E.T., Simpson, C.D, Gill, C.G., Measurement of spatial and temporal variation in volatile hazardous air pollutants in Tacoma, WA using a mobile membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS) system, Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, 49, 1199 (2014).
Willis, M.D., Duncan, K.D., Krogh, E.T., Gill, C.G., Delicate polydimethylsiloxane hollow fibre membrane interfaces for condensed phase membrane introduction mass spectrometry, Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 28, 671 (2014).
Duncan, K.D., Willis, M.D., Krogh, E.T., Gill, C.G., A miniature condensed-phase membrane introduction mass spectrometry probe for direct and on-line measurements of phramaceuticals and contaminants in small complex samples, Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 27, 1213 (2013).
N. G. Davey, E. T. Krogh, C. G. Gill, Membrane Introduction Mass Spectrometry (MIMS), Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 30, 1477 (2011).
K. D. Duncan, E. P. B. McCauley, E. T. Krogh and C. G. Gill, Characterization of a condensed phase membrane introduction mass spectrometry (CP-MIMS) interface using a methanol acceptor phase coupled with electrospray ionization for the continuous on-line quantitation of polar, low-volatility analytes at trace levels in complex aqueous samples, Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 25, 1141 (2011).
J. H. L. Nelson, C. G. Gill, D. A. Friesen, E. T. Krogh, On-line measurements of oxidative degradation kinetics for trace gasoline contaminants in aqueous solutions and natural water by MIMS-MS/MS, Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, 45, 1720 (2010).
E. Dallin, P. Wan, E. Krogh, C. Gill and R. M. Moore, New pH-dependent photosubstitution pathways of syringic acid in aqueous solution: relevance in environmental photochemistry, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology – A: Chemistry, 207, 297 (2009).
J. M. Etzkorn, N. G. Davey, A. J. Thompson, A. S. Creba, C. W. LeBlanc, C. D. Simpson, E. T. Krogh and C. G. Gill, The Use of Membrane Introduction Tandem Mass Spectrometry (MIMS-MS/MS) in Field Locations as an On-Line Quantitative Environmental Monitoring Technique for Trace Contaminants in Air and Water, The Journal of Chromatographic Science, 47 57 (2009).
D. Janes, C. Durning, D. V. Pel, M. S. Lynch, C. G. Gill and E. T. Krogh, Modeling Analyte Permeation in Cylindrical Hollow Fiber Membrane Introduction Mass Spectrometry, Journal of Membrane Science, 325, 81 (2008).
A. J. Thompson, J. M. Etzkorn, D. Van Pel, E. T. Krogh, D. M. Drakeford and C. G. Gill, Membrane Introduction Tandem Mass Spectrometry (MIMS-MS/MS) as a Real-Time Monitor for Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) Emissions from Plants, Canadian Journal of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy, 53, 75 (2008).
J. G. A. Devlin, J. A. Amaral, E. T. Krogh, and C. G. Gill, A Novel Membrane Introduction Analytical System for the Real-time Monitoring of Disinfection Byproducts and Hydrocarbon Contaminants in Water, The Microchemical Journal, 88, 74 (2008).
A. Skye Creba, Alexandra N.E. Weissfloch, Erik T. Krogh and Chris G. Gill, An Enzyme Derivatized Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Membrane for use in Membrane Introduction Mass Spectrometry (MIMS), Journal of the American society for Mass Spectrometry, 18, 973 (2007).
A. J. Thompson, A. S. Creba, R. M. Ferguson, E. T. Krogh and C. G. Gill, A coaxially heated membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS) interface for the rapid and sensitive on-line measurement of volatile and semi-volatile organic contaminants in air and water at parts-per trillion levels, Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 20, 2000 (2006).
J. H. L. Nelson, E. Krogh , C. G. Gill and D.A. Friesen, Monitoring the TiO2-photocatalyzed destruction of aqueous environmental contaminants at parts-per-trillion levels using membrane-introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS), Journal of Environmental Science and Health, A39, 2307 (2004).
C.G. Gill, B. Kuipers, C.D. Simpson, V.W.M. Lai, K.J. Reimer and W.R. Cullen PCBs from old paint, Environmental Science and Technology, 31, 343A (1997).
C. G. Gill, A. W. Garrett, P. H. Hemberger, and N. S. Nogar, Laser ablation ion trap mass spectrometry - RF storage field suppression and it's effect upon analytical performance, Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 11, 551 (1997).
C. G. Gill, A. W. Garrett, W. L. Earl, N. S. Nogar, and P. H. Hemberger, Modified zeolites for mass spectral analysis of tri-butyl phosphate using 'in situ' silver ion chemical ionization, Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 8, 718 (1997).
J. E. Anderson, T. M. Allen, A. W. Garrett, C. G. Gill, P. H. Hemberger, P. B. Kelly and N. S. Nogar, Resonant laser ablation: mechanisms and applications, RIS-96 Proceedings, AIP Proceedings #366, 195 (1997).
C. G. Gill, A. W. Garrett, P. H. Hemberger, and N. S. Nogar, Resonant laser ablation as a selective metal ion source for gas phase ion molecule reactions, Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 7, 664 (1996).
C. G. Gill, A. W. Garrett, P. H. Hemberger, and N. S. Nogar, Selective laser ablation/ionization for ion trap mass spectrometry: resonant laser ablation, Spectrochimica Acta, Part B, 51, 851 (1996).
C. G. Gill, T. M. Allen, J. E. Anderson, T. N. Taylor, P. B. Kelley and N. S. Nogar, Low-power resonant laser ablation of copper, Applied Optics, 35, 2069 (1996).
Mary E. Cisper, Christopher G. Gill, Lisa E. Townsend, and Philip H. Hemberger, On-line detection of volatile organic compounds in air at parts-per-trillion levels by membrane introduction mass spectrometry, Analytical Chemistry, 67, 1413 (1995).
T. M. Allen, C. H. Smith, P. B. Kelley, J. E. Anderson, G. C. Eiden, A. W. Garrett, C. G. Gill, P. H. Hemberger, and N. S. Nogar, Analysis of surfaces, films and multilayers by resonant laser ablation, SPIE Proceedings, 2385, 39(1995).
C. G. Gill and M. W. Blades, Laser ablation ion trap mass spectrometry (LAITMS) - atomic and molecular mass spectrometry of metal, ceramic and polymer samples, Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 8, 261 (1993).
C. G. Gill, B. Daigle, and M. W. Blades, Atomic mass spectrometry of solid samples using laser ablation-ion trap mass spectrometry (LAITMS), Spectrochimica Acta, 46B, 1227 (1991).
M. W. Blades, P. R. Banks, C. G. Gill, C. W. LeBlanc, D. Huang, and D. C. Liang, Application of weakly ionized plasmas for materials sampling and analysis, IEEE Transactions in Plasma Science, 19, 6 (1991).